Das Hakenkreuz wurde somit als ein Zeichen des Heils, als Glückszeichen und als Symbol für Gesundheit und langes Leben angesehen und. Eine Swastika ist ein Kreuz mit vier Schenkeln. Hindus und Buddhisten verehren es als Sonnenrad und als Symbol des Glücks. Die Nazis nannten es. a). gleichschenkliges Kreuz mit vier in die gleiche Richtung weisenden, rechtwinklig geknickten, spitzwinkligen oder abgerundeten Armen. b). Hakenkreuz als.
Hakenkreuz, HakenkreuzfahneAls die Nazis in Deutschland an die Macht kamen, veränderte sich die Symbolik schlagartig. Ethnologen stilisierten das Zeichen zum Merkmal einer. NS-Symbole wie das Hakenkreuz oder die doppelte Sigrune werden heute kaum noch offen von Mit- gliedern der rechtsextremen Szene zur Schau getragen. Wer hat's erfunden? Wieso?, mag manch einer einwenden. Das Hakenkreuz hat Adolf Hitler schließlich nicht erfunden. Das Zeichen ist schon aus der asiatischen.
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Some Christian churches built in the Romanesque and Gothic eras are decorated with swastikas, carrying over earlier Roman designs. Swastikas are prominently displayed in a mosaic in the St.
Sophia church of Kyiv , Ukraine dating from the 12th century. They also appear as a repeating ornamental motif on a tomb in the Basilica of St.
Ambrose in Milan. A ceiling painted in in the church of St Laurent in Grenoble has many swastikas. It can be visited today because the church became the archaeological museum of the city.
A proposed direct link between it and a swastika floor mosaic in the Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens , which was built on top of a pagan site at Amiens , France in the 13th century, is considered unlikely.
The stole worn by a priest in the painting of the Seven Sacraments by Rogier van der Weyden presents the swastika form simply as one way of depicting the cross.
Swastikas also appear in art and architecture during the Renaissance and Baroque era. The fresco The School of Athens shows an ornament made out of swastikas, and the symbol can also be found on the facade of the Santa Maria della Salute , a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice.
In the Polish First Republic the symbol of the swastika was also popular with the nobility. According to chronicles, the Rus' prince Oleg , who in the 9th century attacked Constantinople , nailed his shield which had a large red swastika painted on it to the city's gates.
Boreyko, Borzym, and Radziechowski from Ruthenia, also had swastikas as their coat of arms. The family reached its greatness in the 14th and 15th centuries and its crest can be seen in many heraldry books produced at that time.
The swastika was also a heraldic symbol, for example on the Boreyko coat of arms , used by noblemen in Poland and Ukraine.
In the 19th century the swastika was one of the Russian Empire's symbols, and was used on coinage as a backdrop to the Russian eagle. A swastika can be seen on stonework at Valle Crucis Abbey , near Llangollen.
Because the outer lines point counterclockwise instead of the swastika's clockwise-pointing ends, this is referred to as a sauwastika.
This pattern can be found in a Venetian palace that likely follows a Roman pattern, at Palazzo Roncale, Rovigo. A swastika composed of Hebrew letters as a mystical symbol from the Jewish Kabbalistic work "Parashat Eliezer".
Swastikas on the vestments of the effigy of Bishop William Edington d. The Victorian-era reproduction of the Swastika Stone on Ilkley Moor , which sits near the original to aid visitors in interpreting the carving.
Swastikas can be seen in various African cultures. In Ethiopia the Swastika is carved in the window of the famous 12th Century rock-hewn church Lalibela.
In Ghana, the swastika is among the adinkra symbols of the Akan peoples. Called nkontim , swastikas could be found on Ashanti gold weights and clothing.
The swastika is a Navajo symbol for good luck, also translated to "whirling log". The symbol was used on state road signs in Arizona. In the Western world, the symbol experienced a resurgence following the archaeological work in the late 19th century of Heinrich Schliemann , who discovered the symbol in the site of ancient Troy and associated it with the ancient migrations of Proto-Indo-Europeans , whose proto-language was not coincidentally termed "Proto-Indo-Germanic" by German language historians.
He connected it with similar shapes found on ancient pots in Germany, and theorized that the swastika was a "significant religious symbol of our remote ancestors", linking it to ancient Teutons , Greeks of the time of Homer and Indians of the Vedic era.
Schliemann's work soon became intertwined with the political völkisch movements, which used the swastika as a symbol for the " Aryan race " — a concept that theorists such as Alfred Rosenberg equated with a Nordic master race originating in northern Europe.
The swastika remains a core symbol of neo-Nazi groups. The Benedictine choir school at Lambach Abbey , Upper Austria, which Hitler attended for several months as a boy, had a swastika chiseled into the monastery portal and also the wall above the spring grotto in the courtyard by Their origin was the personal coat of arms of Abbot Theoderich Hagn of the monastery in Lambach, which bore a golden swastika with slanted points on a blue field.
In the s the Theosophical Society adopted a swastika as part of its seal, along with an Om , a hexagram or star of David , an Ankh and an Ouroboros.
The current seal also includes the text "There is no religion higher than truth. The Danish brewery company Carlsberg Group used the swastika as a logo  from the 19th century until the middle of the s when it was discontinued because of association with the Nazi Party in neighbouring Germany.
In Copenhagen at the entrance gate, and tower, of the company's headquarters, built in , swastikas can still be seen.
The tower is supported by four stone elephants, each with a swastika on each side. The tower they support is topped with a spire, in the middle of which is a swastika.
In the fifties Heinrich Böll came across a van belonging to the company while he was staying in Ireland, leading to some awkward moments before he realized the company was older than Nazism and totally unrelated to it.
The chimney of the boiler-house of the laundry still stands, but the laundry has been redeveloped.
In Finland, the swastika vääräpää meaning 'crooked-head', and later hakaristi , meaning 'hook-cross' was often used in traditional folk-art products, as a decoration or magical symbol on textiles and wood.
The swastika was also used by the Finnish Air Force until , and is still used on air force flags.
The tursaansydän , an elaboration on the swastika, is used by scouts in some instances,  and by a student organization.
Traditional textiles are still made in Finland with swastikas as parts of traditional ornaments. The Finnish Air Force used the swastika as an emblem, introduced in , until January The swastika was also used by the women's paramilitary organization Lotta Svärd , which was banned in in accordance with the Moscow Armistice between Finland and the allied Soviet Union and Britain.
According to the protocol, the president shall wear the Grand Cross of the White Rose with collar on formal occasions.
The original design of the collar, decorated with 9 swastikas, dates from and was designed by the artist Akseli Gallen-Kallela.
The Grand Cross with the swastika collar has been awarded 41 times to foreign heads of state. To avoid misunderstandings, the swastika decorations were replaced by fir crosses at the decision of president Urho Kekkonen in after it became known that the President of France Charles De Gaulle was uncomfortable with the swastika collar.
Also a design by Gallen-Kallela from , the Cross of Liberty has a swastika pattern in its arms. The Cross of Liberty is depicted in the upper left corner of the standard of the President of Finland.
In December , a silver replica of the World War II-period Finnish air defence's relief ring decorated with a swastika became available as a part of a charity campaign.
The original war-time idea was that the public swap their precious metal rings for the state air defence's relief ring, made of iron.
In , the old logo of Finnish Air Force Command with Swastika was replaced by a new logo showing golden eagle and a circle of wings. However, the logo of Finland's air force academy still keeps the swastika symbol.
Earlier versions pointed counter-clockwise, while later versions pointed clock-wise and eliminated the white background. As in Latvia, the symbol is a traditional Baltic ornament,   found on relics dating from at least the 13th century.
The traditional symbols of the Podhale Rifles include the edelweiss flower and the Mountain Cross, a swastika symbol popular in folk culture of the Polish mountainous regions.
The logo was replaced in , when Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. During the early s, the swastika was used as a symbol of electric power, perhaps because it resembled a waterwheel or turbine.
On maps of the period, the sites of hydroelectric power stations were marked with swastikas. Swastikas adorn its wrought iron gates. The architects knew the swastika as a symbol of electricity and were probably not yet aware that it had been usurped by the German Nazi party and would soon become the foremost symbol of the German Reich.
The fact that these gates survived the cleanup after the German occupation of Norway during WW II is a testimony to the innocence and good faith of the power plant and its architects.
The swastika motif is found in some traditional Native American art and iconography. Historically, the design has been found in excavations of Mississippian -era sites in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, and on objects associated with the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex S.
It is also widely used by a number of southwestern tribes, most notably the Navajo , and plains nations such as the Dakota.
Among various tribes, the swastika carries different meanings. The Passamaquoddy Native American tribe, now located in the state of Maine and in Canada , used an elongated swastika on their war canoes in the American colonial period as well as later.
Before the s, the symbol for the 45th Infantry Division of the United States Army was a red diamond with a yellow swastika, a tribute to the large Native American population in the southwestern United States.
It was later replaced with a thunderbird symbol. A swastika shape is a symbol in the culture of the Kuna people of Kuna Yala , Panama.
In Kuna tradition it symbolizes the octopus that created the world, its tentacles pointing to the four cardinal points. In February , the Kuna revolted vigorously against Panamanian suppression of their culture, and in they assumed autonomy.
The flag they adopted at that time is based on the swastika shape, and remains the official flag of Kuna Yala. A number of variations on the flag have been used over the years: red top and bottom bands instead of orange were previously used, and in a ring representing the traditional Kuna nose-ring was added to the center of the flag to distance it from the symbol of the Nazi party.
From to , the K-R-I-T automobile, manufactured in Detroit, Michigan, used a right-facing swastika as their trademark. Chief William Neptune of the Passamaquoddy , wearing a headdress and outfit adorned with swastikas.
Chilocco Indian Agricultural School basketball team in Fernie Swastikas women's hockey team, The Buffum tool company of Louisiana used the swastika as its trademark.
It went out of business in the s. The swastika was widely used in Europe at the start of the 20th century. It symbolized many things to the Europeans, with the most common symbolism being of good luck and auspiciousness.
This insignia was used on the party's flag, badge, and armband. In his work Mein Kampf , Adolf Hitler writes that: "I myself, meanwhile, after innumerable attempts, had laid down a final form; a flag with a red background, a white disk, and a black hooked cross in the middle.
After long trials I also found a definite proportion between the size of the flag and the size of the white disk, as well as the shape and thickness of the hooked cross.
When Hitler created a flag for the Nazi Party, he sought to incorporate both the swastika and "those revered colors expressive of our homage to the glorious past and which once brought so much honor to the German nation".
Red, white, and black were the colors of the flag of the old German Empire. He also stated: "As National Socialists, we see our program in our flag.
Adolf Hitler chose it as the symbol of the German Workers Party after he joined. Before Hitler, members had already worn Hakenkreuz armbands.
Hitler was responsible for its red, white and black coloring. The Nazi 'Hakenkreuz', where the Swastika is at an angle.
In fear of global chaos with the revelation of this highly destructive weapon, UN hires Global Risk to stop Neo Martz of its plans to rule the world by destroying the new weapon and retrieve the weapon blueprint.
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Translations of Hakenkreuz. Italian : Svastica.